April 18 1942, The Doolittle’s Raid on Japan, 1942

Doolittle Raid
Doolittle’s Pilot Lt Col Richard “Dick” Cole with the original April 1942 B-25J Panchito (Plane #01 S/N #402244, 34th Bomber Sq), at Charlotte County Airport in Punta Gorda, Florida on Friday, March 25, 2011. © 2011 Robert Seale (Source : www.www.robertsealeblog.com)

The Doolittle Raid of April 18, 1942, was the first air raid by the United States to strike the Japanese home islands during World War II. The mission was notable in that it was the only operation in which United States Army Air Forces bombers were launched from a US Navy aircraft carrier. It was the longest combat mission ever flown by the B-25 Mitchell medium bomber.
This raid had its start in a desire by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, expressed to the Joint Chiefs of Staff in a meeting at the White House on Dec 21 1941, that Japan be bombed as soon as possible to boost public morale after the disaster at Pearl Harbor. The Japanese people had been told they were invulnerable … An attack on the Japanese homeland would cause confusion in the minds of the Japanese people and sow doubt about the reliability of their leaders. There was a second, and equally important, psychological reason for this attack … Americans badly needed a morale boost. Doolittle, later in his autobiography, recounted that the raid was intended to bolster American morale and to cause the Japanese to begin doubting their leadership, in which it succeeded.


B-25-Color

The concept for the attack came from Navy Capt Francis S. Low, Assistant CoS for anti-submarine warfare, who reported to Admiral Ernest J. King on Jan 10 1942 that he thought twin-engine Army bombers could be launched from an aircraft carrier, after observing several at a naval airfield in Norfolk, Virginia, where the runway was painted with the outline of a carrier deck for landing practice. The attack was planned and led by Doolittle, a famous civilian aviator and aeronautical engineer before the war.

James-Doolittle

Requirements that the aircraft have a cruising range of 2400 nautical miles (4400 km) with a 2000-pound (910 Kg) bomb load resulted in the selection of the B-25B Mitchell to carry out the mission. The Martin B-26 Marauder, Douglas B-18 Bolo and Douglas B-23 Dragon were also considered, but the B-26 had questionable takeoff characteristics from a carrier deck and the B-23’s wingspan was nearly 50% greater than the B-25’s, reducing the number of plane that could be taken aboard a carrier and posing risks to the ship’s island (superstructure). The B-18, one of the final two types considered by Doolittle, was rejected for the same reason.

B25WallOfFire
Wonderful picture of a B-25 doing a low pass above a wall of fire. (Source :Richard Seaman)

In 1942, the B-25 had still to be tested in combat, but subsequent tests indicated they could fulfill the mission’s requirements. Doolittle’s first report on the plan suggested the bombers might land in Vladivostok, shortening the flight by 600 nautical miles (1100 Km) on the basis of turning over the B-25s as Lend-Lease. Negotiations with the Soviet Union, which had signed a neutrality pact with Japan on Apr 1941, for permission were fruitless. Something else was also pointed out : bombers attacking defended targets often relied on a fighter escort to defend them from enemy fighters; not only did Doolittle’s aircraft lack a full complement of guns to save weight, but it was not possible for fighters to accompany them.

hornet2
Anchored in Alameda, California, the USS Hornet has become a floating museum. (Source : Aerial Photography of the Bay Area by John Ballou)

USS-Hornet

When planning indicated that the B-25 was the aircraft best meeting all specifications of the mission, two were loaded aboard the aircraft carrier USS Hornet at Norfolk, Virginia, and flown off the deck without difficulty on Feb 3 1942. The raid was approved and the 17th Bomb Group (M), (first Medium BG with 4 Squadrons using B-25s in the AAF), was chosen to provide the pool of crews from which volunteers would be recruited. Based in Pendleton, Oregon, the Group was moved to Lexington County Army Air Base at Columbia, South Carolina, to fly similar patrols off the East Coast of the US and prepare for the mission against Japan. Initial planning calling for 20 aircraft, 24 of the group’s B-25B Mitchell were diverted to the Mid-Continent Airlines modification center in Minneapolis, Minnesota which became the first modification center operational. From nearby Fort Snelling, the 710th Military Police Battalion provided tight security around this hangar.

North-American-B-25-Mitchell-bombers
(Source : Photo : Doug Fisher, s.wallpaperhere.com)

Modifications

  • Removal of the lower gun turret.
  • Installation of de-icers and anti-icers.
  • Steel blast plates mounted on the fuselage around the upper turret.
  • Removal of the liaison radio set (a weight impediment).
  • Installation of a 160-gallon collapsible neoprene auxiliary fuel tank fixed to the top of the bomb bay, and support mounts for additional fuel cells in the bomb bay, crawlway and lower turret area to increase fuel capacity from 646 to 1141 gallons.
  • Mock gun barrels installed in the tail cone.
  • Replacement of their Norden bombsight with a makeshift aiming sight devised by pilot Capt Charles Ross Greening and called the “Mark Twain”.

Note : two bombers also had cameras mounted to record the results of bombing.

The 24 crews selected picked up the modified bombers in Minneapolis and flew them to Eglin Field, Florida, beginning Mar 1 1942. There the crews received intensive training for three weeks in simulated carrier deck takeoffs, low-level and night flying, low-altitude bombing and over-water navigation, primarily out of Wagner Field, Auxiliary Field 1. Lt Henry Miller, USN, from nearby Naval Air Station Pensacola supervised their takeoff training and accompanied the crews to the launch.

1652x805xNorth-American-Aviation-B-25B-Mitchell-40-2291-Eglin-Field-Forida-Mar-1942
North American Aviation B-25B Mitchell 40-2291 at Eglin Field, Florida, March 1942.

On Mar 25 1942, after three weeks of intensive training at Eglin Field, the 22 remaining North American Aviation B-25B Mitchell twin-engine medium bombers of the 17-BG, completed a two-day low-level transcontinental flight and arrived at the Sacramento Air Depot, McClellan Field, California, for final modifications, repairs and maintenance before an upcoming secret mission. 16 B-25s were flown to NAS Alameda, California, on Mar 31. Fifteen raiders were the mission force and a 16th aircraft, by last minute agreement with the Navy, was squeezed onto the deck to be flown off shortly after departure from San Francisco to provide feedback to the Army pilots about takeoff characteristics. The 16th bomber was made part of the mission force instead.

Doolittle Combat Group

01-402244
B-25 #01 #402244 : 34th Bomber Sq : Tokyo

  • Pilot Lt Col J. H. Doolittle
  • Co-Pilot Lt R. E. Cole
  • Navigator Lt H. A. Potter
  • Bombardier S/Sgt F. A. Braemer
  • Engineer Gunner S/Sgt. P. J. Leonard

02-402292
B-25 #02 #402292 : 37th Bomber Sq : Tokyo

  • Pilot Lt T. Hoover
  • Co-Pilot Lt W. N. Fitzhugh
  • Navigator Lt C. R. Wildner
  • Bombardier Lt R. E. Miller
  • Engineer Gunner S/Sgt D. V. Radney

03-402270
B-25 #3 #402270 : 95th Bomber Sq : Tokyo

  • Pilot Lt R. M. Gray
  • Co-Pilot Lt J. E. Manch
  • Navigator Lt C. J. Ozuk
  • Bombardier Sgt A. E. Jones
  • Engineer Gunner Cpl L. D. Faktor

04-402282
B-25 #4 #402282 : 95th Bomber Sq : Tokyo

  • Pilot Lt E. W. Holstrom
  • Co-Pilot Lt L. N. Youngblood
  • Navigator Lt H. C. McCool
  • Bombardier Sgt R. J. Stephens
  • Engineer Gunner Cpl B. M. Jordan

05-402283
B-25 #5 #402283 : 95th Bomber Sq : Tokyo

  • Pilot Capt D. M. Jones
  • Co-Pilot Lt R. R. Wilder
  • Navigator Lt E. F. McGurl
  • Bombardier Lt D. V. Truelove
  • Engineer Gunner Sgt J. W. Manske

06-42298
B-25 #6 #402298 : 95th Bomber Sq : Tokyo

  • Pilot Lt D. E. Hallmark
  • Co-Pilot Lt R. J. Meder
  • Navigator Lt C. J. Nielsen
  • Bombardier Sgt W. J. Dieter
  • Engineer Gunner Cpl D. E. Fitzmaurice

07-402261
B-25 #7 #402261 : 95th Bomber Sq : Tokyo

  • Pilot Lt T. W. Lawson
  • Co-Pilot Lt D. Davenport
  • Navigator Lt C. L. McClure
  • Bombardier Lt R. S. Clever
  • Engineer Gunner Sgt D. J. Thatcher

08-402242
B-25 #8 #402242 : 95th Bomber Sq : Tokyo

  • Pilot Capt E. J. York
  • Co-Pilot Lt R. G. Emmens
  • Navigator Lt N. A. Herndon
  • Bombardier S/Sgt T. H. Laban
  • Engineer Gunner Sgt D. W. Pohl

09-402203
B-25 #9 #402203 : 34th Bomber Sq : Tokyo

  • Pilot Lt H. F. Watson
  • Co-Pilot Lt J. M. Parker Jr
  • Navigator Lt T. C. Griffin
  • Bombardier Sgt W. M. Bissell
  • Engineer Gunner T/Sgt E. V. Scott

10-402250
B-25 #10 #402250 : 89th Bomber Sq : Tokyo

  • Pilot Lt R. O. Joyce
  • Co-Pilot Lt J. R. Stork
  • Navigator Bombardier Lt H. E. Crouch
  • Engineer Gunner Sgt G. E. Larkin Jr
  • Gunner S/Sgt E. W. Horton Jr

11-402249
B-25 #11 #402249 : 89th Bomber Sq : Yokohama

  • Pilot Capt C. R. Greening
  • Co-Pilot Lt K. E. Reddy
  • Navigator Lt F. A. Kappeler
  • Bombardier S/Sgt W. L. Birch
  • Engineer Gunner Sgt M. J. Gardner

12-402278
B-25 #12 #402278 : 37th Bomber Sq : Yokohama

  • Pilot Lt W. M. Bower
  • Co-Pilot Lt T. Blanton
  • Navigator Lt W. R. Pound Jr
  • Bombardier T/Sgt W. J. Bither
  • Engineer Gunner S/Sgt O. A. Duquette

13-402247
B-25 #13 #402247 : 37th Bomber Sq : Yokosuka

  • Pilot Lt E. E. McElroy
  • Co-Pilot Lt R. A. Knobloch
  • Navigator Lt C. J. Campbell
  • Bombardier Sgt R. C. Bourgeois
  • Engineer Gunner Sgt A. R. Williams

14-402297
B-25 #14 #402297 : 89th Bomber Sq : Nagoya

  • Pilot Maj J. A. Hilger
  • Co-Pilot Lt J. A. Sims
  • Navigator Bombardier Lt J. H. Macia Jr
  • Radio Gunner S/Sgt E. V. Bain
  • Engineer Gunner S/Sgt J. Eierman

15-402267
B-25 #15 #402267 : 89th Bomber Sq : Kobe

  • Pilot Lt D. G. Smith
  • Co-Pilot Lt G. P. Williams
  • Navigator Bombardier Lt H. A. Sessler
  • Flight Surgeon Lt T. R. White MD
  • Engineer Gunner Sgt E. J. Saylor

16-402268
B-25 #16 #402268 : 34th Bomber Sq : Nagoya

  • Pilot Lt W. G. Farrow
  • Co-Pilot Lt R. L. Hite
  • Navigator Lt G. Barr
  • Bombardier Cpl J. DeShazer
  • Engineer Gunner Sgt H. A. Spatz
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4 thoughts on “April 18 1942, The Doolittle’s Raid on Japan, 1942

  1. I don’t know why this article shows a picture of the USS Hornet (CV 12) in Alameda. The Hornet used for the Doolittle raid was a different USS Hornet.

    • I can answer that question very easy as an amateur. I think I have to do it because seeing what a professional like you comes with : “this Hornet of the photo wasn’t the Hornet used in 1942. It was another Hornet”.
      I do this on purpose because all the reader can dives. Beside the fact that the Hornet on the photo wasn’t used for the Doolittle’s Raid because the Hornet used in 1942 was sink. So ! and to make sure that peoples (mostly Americans) like to visit something, we keep using that this Hornet, the one in Alameda and not the one sunk in 1942 is in fact the USS Hornet (CV/CVA/CVS-12), a United States Navy aircraft carrier of the Essex class. Construction started in August 1942. She was originally named USS Kearsarge, but was renamed in honor of the USS Hornet (CV-8), which was lost in October 1942, becoming the eighth ship to bear the name.
      Hornet was commissioned in November 1943, and after three months of training joined the US forces in the Pacific War. She played a major part in the Pacific battles of World War II, and also took part in Operation Magic Carpet, returning troops back to the US Following World War II, she served in the Vietnam War, and also played a part in the Apollo program, recovering astronauts as they returned from the Moon.
      Hornet was finally decommissioned in 1970. She was eventually designated as both a National Historic Landmark and a California Historical Landmark, and in 1998 she opened to the public as the USS Hornet Museum in Alameda, California.

  2. The photo of the Enterprise is also wrong. It shows USS Enterprise (CVN 65) not USS Enterprise (CV 6). Same with the Lexington, it shows USS Lexington (CV 16) not USS Lexington (CV 2). I wonder what amateur is writing this stuff?

    • Oh by the way … I am the one that write these articles. Unfortunately I don’t have my fat ass sitting on piles and piles of wartime archives that I don’t even look at it to pee a comment out. I like comment : bad or good. There is something I can’t handle not support : wanabee

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